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Suggested Links


Links are my favorite things about websites. They can occupy me for hours, searching from site to site. So I thought I would provide some of my own. Some things to keep in mind:
There is a lot of junk out there on the web. I decided that if I was going to provide links they would be to sites I had some confidence in. I can't speak for the quality of the links on those sites, of course.
I hate sites with music, unless the music is the point. You won't find any sites here with Celtic harp music or the like.
I hate broken links. If you find that any of these are broken, please let me know.
A number of these, especially the academic ones, are .pdf's, so you'll need at least Acrobat Reader for them. That can be downloaded for free, though, and will prove useful time and time again.
If you have any sites to recommend, send them to me. I'll check them out and decide whether I want to put them here.
Enjoy.

Nemos Ognios (ADF) - My grove's website.
Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship - ADF, founded in the 1980s by Isaac Bonewits, is the largest druidic organization in the United States. I am proud to be a member.

America:
Adams Family Papers - The famous letters between John and Abigail Adams, plus John's diaries and autobiography.
American Memory - Huge (how does 27,000 documents by Thomas Jefferson sound?) collection of American source material.
The Constitution - Worth reading from time to time, if for no other reason than to remind yourself of how amazing this document is. In its original form it was four pages long! With a few changes, we've governed ourselves for over 200 years on four pages.
From Revolution to Reconstruction - The title is too modest; this collection of documents relating to American politics ranges from the Magna Carta to George W. Bush's 2001 State of the Union address.
The Great Seal of the United States - How it came to be.
Guide for the Presidents of the United States - Interesting bits of information on the presidents, with a link for each of them to another site with more. I learned from thbis that Chester A. Arthur (my favorite president) might have been born in Canada.
I Should Not Be Allowed To Say The Following Things About America - Did you notice how much the author's photo looks like a mug shot?
Star of Columbia - A song by M. T. Durham.
State History Guide - State muffin of Massachusetts? (Corn.) Invertebrate fossil of Ohio? (Isotelus.) Drink of Louisiana? (Milk.) All this and more.
The Supreme Court Historical Society
The Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress
USHistory.org - "Created and Hosted by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia." Large number of pages centering around the history of America from its founding through to the Revolutionary War. A lot of information centering on Philadelphia, of course, but the rest of the colonies are well-represented.
Walt Whitman - reading from "America."

America: Separation of Church and State
Critique of David Barton's "America's Godly Heritage" - A publication by a proponent of the "America is a Christian Nation" is trashed by the Baptist Joint Committee on Public Affairs.
How to Have Prayers in Public Schools - Legally - For next time someone complains to you about how prayer has been taken out of the schools.
Religion In The Public Schools: A Joint Statement Of Current Law - A good summary of the rights of students and the restrictions on the govenrment, prepared by a number of groups, including the ACLU, American Jewish Congress, Baptist Joint Committee, General Conference of Seventh Day Adventists, and the National Association of Evangelicals.
Separation of Church and State Home Page - Essays giving arguments in favor, and answers to arguments against.
Thomas Jefferson on the Wall of Separation between Church and State - Read what he really wrote.
Treaty with Tripoli, 1796 - Did you know that the United States wasn't founded on Christianity? The Founders did.
The Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom - One of the three things Thomas Jefferson wanted on his tombstone was "Author of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom." A must-read for anyone wanting to understand the thoughts of the Founders regarding religious freedom.

American Paganism:
Modern Pagans in America have tended to practice forms of pre-Christian religions, whether from Europe or elsewhere. The Reconstructionists have said that it is important that they be practiced as much like they were in ancient times as is possible, while others have insisted on a much larger percentage of accomadation to modern sensibilities. Both have missed the point, and both have missed the promise.
American Pagans aren't just Pagans who are living in America; they are Pagans who are American. What does this mean? Ancient Pagan cultures were theocracies, but America is a secular nation. How do we reconcile that?
The solution is that there is already a "secular religion" in place in America. In large part it is drawn from classical sources -- the goddess Liberty, the fasces on government buildings, and so on. In part it is drawn from universal sources -- celebrations of particular days with parades, bonfires, parties, and such. And in part it is formed from elements that are, if not uniquely American, then strongly American -- historical documents as possessing spiritual value, speeches, elections as ritual, etc. This religion, although not generally recognized as one, provides a meaning to our lives as citizens, and a source of unity, as surely as the state religion of ancient Rome.
But it isn't Pagan, at least not on the surface. It is, however, something that is shared by all Americans, no matter what other religions they may practice. It is a religionless religion, one that binds rather than separates. It is one in which ancient deities are honored, and new ones produced, which are seen as allegories, and thus there is no danger in non-Pagans honoring them.
A number of us are asking, however, what if we did worship these deities? What if we took part in the secular rituals -- the parades, and the speeches, and the parties -- but saw in them a non-secular meaning? What if we saw the gods and goddesses associated with America as actual deities, but without allowing them to be seen as allegories, without acting like we were the ones who knew their real meaning? These are fascinating and important questions; in their answers may lie the key to what a truly American Paganism would look like.
These sites, then, are mostly pieces of a puzzle which is still being worked on. We don't know how big the puzzle is, its shape, or even if it really exists. But we're taking a shot at it anyways. Come join us, and welcome aboard.
The Apotheosis of Washington - The inside of the dome of the Capitol building. Pretty wild; Washington being raised to the heavens, to divine status, by the goddesses Liberty and Victory/Fame. Check out the surrounding paintings, in which classical goddesses teach the arts and skills to the Founding Fathers.
Architect of the Capitol Website - Pages on the Capitol. The artwork section is intriguing; the Capitol art is a mix of Pagan, Christian, and historical symbolism, which says a lot about America.
Cincinnatus - The ideal man on which the Founding Fathers, especially Washington, based their public lives. Great statue.
The Classical Temple Architecture and and Symbols of Washington, DC
The Classical Tradition in America - Photos of artwork in Washington, DC, designed to accompany a course at Vanderbilt University. The statue of Washington as Zeus is particulary intriguing.
William A. Cox, "The Goddess of Freedom How Lofty She" - A poem from 1927 directed at the statue of Armed Freedom.
Fasces - Before the Fascists took it over, a symbol of republican government. Still found in many places, such as the chamber of the House of Representatives. From answers.com.
Indiana Statehouse Images
Indiana War Memorial - Great sacred space.
Lady Freedom Among Us - A page of the next site, but it deserved its own link. It's a poem by Rita Dove, Poet Laureate of the United States, which captures both the glory of Liberty and the reality of how we haven't always lived up to her. Reality without the cynicism, idealism without the blindness.
Lady Liberty: The Changing Face of Freedom - Essays on the history of both the concept of Liberty and the statues of her.
Philadelphia Public Art@philart.net - As is to be expected, the birthplace of our government has a large number of public artworks appropriate to American Paganism -- war memorials, Justice, Religious Liberty, various Ancestors, etc. Swann Memorial Fountain, with its statues of the Delaware, Schuylkill and Wissahickon rivers.
Religio Americana - Yahoo list for people attempting to develop a uniquely American form of Paganism.
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site - Augustus Saint-Gaudens designed many monuments, sculptures, cameos, and the like, a number of which are of images connected with the ancestors and deities. He was also the designer of the most beautiful American coin ever minted, the Twenty-Dollar Gold Piece. Note what Teddy Roosevelt said, agreeing not to put "In God We Trust" on it.
Support the Tiananmen Mothers - I have a special devotion to the Goddess of Democracy erected by protestors in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China, in 1989. They based it on the New York Statue of Liberty. On June 4, the Chinese government moved in with tanks, while the rest of the world did nothing. I have a replica of the statue in one of my shrines, and I honor her frequently. June 4, 1989, was a day of shame for this country. This site is an e-mail petition to allow the mothers of those killed that day to publicly mourn their dead. E-mail petitions rarely do any good, but it's more than was done before and when the tanks rolled in.
Supreme Court Building Friezes - Talk about Pagan imagery. Pay particular attention to what the stone tablet with the Roman numerals I - X over the Chief Justice's head, the point to which the lawgivers of all the ages are coming, represents, and what it means for the American secular religion.
Temple of Liberty - Woodcut from 1834.
USA Thinking Team -- New Images of Uncle Sam - The images (and idea) of Aunt Sarah are kind of silly, but I love the one of Uncle Sam with the hammer. Makes you want to join in with him.
Vintage Glory Cards - Produced by a small company (I think there may be only one person there), these are note cards with replica pictures from 19th and early 20th patriotic themes. The number with Liberty on them is disappointing, but there are still some very nice ones.
Washington as Zeus - A statue that proved just a little too Pagan for acceptance.
Phyllis Wheatley - Wheatley was a slave, capture in Africa and brought to the American colonies in the mid-eigheenth century. Taught to read by her owners, who considered her part of their family, she became a famous poet. As a devout Christian, she filled most of her poems with Christian imagery. "To His Excellency, George Washington," which this site links to, is, however, an amazingly purely Pagan poem. And quite beautiful, at that.

Images of Liberty:
Images of Liberty are found in many places, starting in the Roman period. Most of the ones found today are American, particularly on coins; before presidents were put on American coins, Liberty was there. (It would be great to get back to that tradition, perhaps on the dollar coin the government keeps trying to get accepted. A forlorn hope, perhaps.) Here are some of her images:

Alaskan Liberty - Photo of a the Goddess Liberty and her court from 1907 Valdez, Alaska.
Armed Freedom - This is the statue of a goddess, perhaps an avatar of Liberty, which stands on the top of the dome of the Capitol in Washington.
Chain Cent (1793)The chain on the back is apparently intended to represent the bonds of the states. Still, it's a rather odd thing on a coin with Liberty on the other side.
Cigar Label with Liberty
Gauden Twenty Dollar coin - The most beautiful image of her ever.
Gauden Twenty Dollar coin - A modern colored version.
The Goddess Liberty with a Portrait of Jefferson - From this site: Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Exhibition
Hawaii Great Seal - The native peoples of Hawaii supporting the state along with Liberty.
Iranian Liberty Englightening the World - Sometimes it isn't a torch she needs. Check it out.
Liberty Leading the People - Eugene Delacroix's famous painting from the French Revolution. Note to John Ashcroft and those who had trouble with the standing Liberty coin: this Liberty has a bare breast. The horror!
Liberty, Missouri - The city's Great Seal
Matthughes on DeviantArt
Montana State Capitol
New Jersey State Flag - Liberty and Prosperity (shown as Ceres) supporting the state seal.
New York State Flag - Liberty and Justice.
One-franc Coin (1992)
The Pennsylvania Magazine
San Jacinto Liberty - On a flag carried at the Battle of San Jacinto, during the Texas Revolution.
Standing Liberty - This coin caused quite a stir when it was released because of her bare breast. I guess this sort of thing didn't start with John Ashcroft.
Texas Capitol

Images of other American Deities:
These aren't necessarily on American images, though. I've limited the images of classical deities to modern images to show how they've been interpreted by (presumably) non-Pagan artists.
Alma Mater - At Columbia University
Alma Mater - At University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois
America Reclining
America Trampling on Oppression
Baltimore Courthouse - Stained glass images of virtues.
Columbia Brewing Co. - Love the see-through top. Can you imagine any company using a logo with that today? Ah, for the innocent, non-sex-crazed yesteryear, when modesty prevailed.
Columbia - The monument from Illinois at Andersonville.
Columbia - From the Elks National Veterans Memorial, Chicago.
Columbia - From the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific
Genius of Connecticut - In the state capitol.
The CONNector: Connecticut State Library Newsletter - Statues of Art, Science, Justice, and History.
Father of the Waters - A statue of the god of the Mississippi in the Minneapolis Municipal Building.
The Four Continents - Outside the main entrance to the former United States Custom House in New York City.
Justice- A more active and erotic statue of her from Saint Louis University of Law.
Justice - Lots and lots and lots of images of her.
Minerva Dictating the Constitution - From the base of John Jay's statue in Washington. So that's where we get our Constitution from.
Minerva on Fifty Dollar Coin - Struck in 1915 to commerorate the opening of the Panama Canal.
Mother Iowa - Iowa, you surprise me.
Portlandia - The goddess of Portland, Oregon.
Images of Goddesses of Livestock, Industry and Mining, Motherhood, and Agriculture from the South Dakota Capitol Building
Various - Images of allegorical virtues. (Go through the stream to see.)
Victory - On the top of the Arizona state capitol.
Virginia Great Seal - Virtus on this seal.
Vulcan Park - He watches over Birmingham, Alabama.
Wisconsin Sculptures - Primarily from the capitol. They include the large statue of Wisconsin herself, Prosperity, Abundance, and a very erotic "Genius of Wisconsin."
WW I Victory Medal - With, of course, an image of Victory.

Wisconsin - Often misidentified as "Lady Forward."
Armenia
History Workshop of Robert Bedrosian - Some papers on Armenian topics, but more importantly, some old primary source material.

Anatolia
Goddess and Child Statue - Beautiful, isn't it?
The Hittite Grammar Language Homepage - Grammar, lexicon, etc.
Hittite/Hurrian Mythology

The Balts:
Lithuanian Mythology and Religion Resources (links).
Witches in Baltic Fairy Tales - Mostly a linguistic analysis of the words for "witch" in Baltic, but with some folklore as well.

The Celts:
General:
About a Bull - The Táin Bó Cuailnge in comic book form (so far only a few chapters).
Bad Celtic Page - Answers to some misconceptions about the Celts.
Bradley W. Schenk Graphics - Celtic and Retro Sci-Fi clip art.
Celtic Art and Retro - Futuristic Design | Powered by CafePress.com - The on-line store for Schenk's site. His designs are simply amazing; he has taken Celtic art and created some new yet old masterpieces.
Celtic Astrology - The Fabrication of 'Celtic' Astrology by Peter Berresford Ellis. Bad news for fans of Robert Graves and the Ogham Tree Alphabet.
Celtic Interlace - Delightful and, to Pagans, possibly distressing, history of Celtic interlace, which had its origins in the Christian period.
An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language - By Alexander MacBain
Everything Ogham on the Web - Links to a mix of academic and not-so-academic sites. Includes links to Ogham fonts.
Fianna: Guide to Irish Genealogy
Ireland's History in Maps - Who was where when.
A Manx Notebook - Everything Manx, including the complete texts of a number of old folklore books.
Map of Ireland - Clickable; includes megalithic sites.
Morphing Tetradachms - Many Celtic coins were based on Greek ones, and as time and space goes by the Greek images dissolve into Celtic abstraction. Up till now you've had to see this by looking at pictures of coins next to each other, but now you can see it happen right before your very own eyes! Truly cool.
Roman Britain - Maps and general information.
Romano-Celtic Temple - Made from Legos.
St. Munna of Taghmon
The Temple of Manannan Mac Lir - Not so fast, you academics! Although this is a Neo-Pagan site, it has a large collection of Manx folklore, including some collected in the 19th century. Very useful.

Neo-Pagan Celts
Celtic Scholar's World - The website of Celtic Reconstructionist Maya St. Clair who lives in, of all places, Kuwait.
Deo Mercurio - Gaulish Reconstructionism
The Preserving Shrine - Homepage of Celtic Reconstructionist Erynn Rowan Laurie.
Tairis - Scottish Reconstructionism

Primary Sources:
Ancient North Italic Inscriptions - Copies of these inscriptions, with transliterations. No translations, though.
Baile in Scáil ("The Phantom's Frenzy") - Very famous story about Lugh and the red ale of Sovereignty.
The Bodleian Dinnshenchas - Medieval stories about place names. Many important myths.
The Book of the Taking of Ireland
Carmina Gadelica - The first volume, in English and Scottish Gaelic, of this late 19th century collection of Scottish prayers.
CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts - A project to publish on-line all of the medieval Celtic texts. Most aren't translated, but many are. This is a good place to look first.
Celtic Coin Index - Still just the British coins, but very complete on them. I used it to determine that what the antiques dealer in Covent Garden said was an Icenian coin was, in fact, an Icenian coin.
The Colloquy of the Two Sages
Cormac's Metrical Testament
The Edinburgh Dinnshenchas
The Four Ancient Books of Wales
Genius Cucullatus Exhibition - Great pictures, too.
Gerald of Wales - The Conquest of Ireland - Not the one with the horse sacrifice in it.
Gerald of Wales - The Topography of Ireland - This is the one with the horse sacrifice, as well as the description of the eternal fire of Brighid.
Icenian Art - Torcs, coins, and such.
Lives of St. Declan of Ardmore and St. Mochuda of Lismore - Irish Texts Society XVI (1914).
Mary Jones - This link could have been put in a number of places, but I decided that it would be most important here. Among other things, Jones has gathered (and continues to gather) a large number of Celtic texts, right from the pre-Christian era. It's a lot like CELT, but has a large number of texts the other site doesn't. An excellent place to start.
Pictish Stone Database
Preiddeu Annwn - Authoritative edition and translation of one of the most important and most commonly mistranslated Welsh texts.
Ptolemy: The Geography
Sengóidelc - Quotations from Medieval Irish literature, in both Irish and English. Some lovely stuff.
Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many
A Veue of the Present State of Irelande, by Edmund Spenser (1596)

Academic Secondary Sources:
Bibliography of Irish Linguistics and Literature (School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies)
Brehon Law Links - The medieval Irish had a very involved and well-thought out system of law. A little too well-thought out; you can't help imagining Irish lawyers sitting around going, "OK, we know how much we should fine someone if their cow wanders onto someone else's land. But shouldn't we decide whether the fine should be different by day or night?" "Good idea." "And what about if they had to break down a fence to do it?" "Great thinking." "And shouldn't we give different fines for different colour cows?" "Ah, Seamus, now you've gone too far."
Celtic Cultural Studies - On-line journal. It doesn't come out in volumes; instead it just adds articles as it decides to publish them.
Celtic Paganism - Notes from a course taught at Harvard by Patrick K. Ford.
Celtic Studies Bibliography - A bibliography of basically every article on the Celts ever published in an academic journal.
Celtic Settlement of Trísov - Archaeological treatment of a Celtic site in Bohemia.
Coflein - Guide to archaeological and historical sites in Wales.
The Coligny Calendar Page - The Coligny calendar is from a series of bronze fragments from Gaul. Although it was written down in the Roman era, it clearly is primarily Celtic, and supplies us with our only clear evidence of what a Pagan calendar was like. Did I say "clear?" My mistake; there are still many things we don't know about it (like when the year began). It's definitely worth study, though. This site gives a lot of information on it (not all of which I agree with, but that's nothing new), and a link to a fun page which will tell you the current date as per the calendar.
Electonic Dictionary of the Irish Language - The DIL has been the sourcre for both Old and Middle Irish for almost a hundred years. It's a bitch to use, but now it's on-line and you don't have to pull out the magnifying glass to read the tiny text. And it's searchable! Yee hah!
E-Keltoi - On-line journal.
Excavations - Brief excavation reports from Ireland, north and south.
Faiclair Gáidhlig - Beurla - Irish to English dictionary.
Gaulish English Dictionary
The Genesis of Togail Bruidne Da Derga - Article from Celtica by Maire West on the famous Irish story known in English as "The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel."
Gundestrup Cauldron - Nice short essay on the cauldron, with bibliography and photos of all the panels. My one beef is that there should have been more space spent on the Thracian theory. Oh, and Olmsted is nuts. The cauldron showing a proto-version of the Tain? Come on.
Iberian Epigraphy Page
Name Constructions in Gaulish
Notae and Suspensions - Examples of the abbreviations and symbols used in medieval Irish manuscripts.
Old Irish Spelling and Pronunciation - Seem it's not completely random.
Studia Celtic Fennica - Yearbook of the Finnish Society for Celtic Studies. Some of the articles are in English.
Tuatha de Danann - OK, so the site's in Polish. But check out the "Galeria;" some wonderful pictures of Celtic artifacts, some of which I'd never seen before.
What's a Digital Medievalist? - The person who runs this site is a graduate student in Celtic Studies at UCLA. Some great essays and reading lists.

Museums:
Those of us without access to the great collections of Gaulish artifacts, such as Esperandieu, have little exposure to their richness. Books on the Celts show a favored several dozen of artifacts, all quite wonderful. But there are so many more, many of them wonderful in their own way. Fortunately, a lot of museums are putting images of parts of their collections on line, and since some of these are smallish local ones, they have all sorts of artifacts that won't be found in the lists of famous ones. Since they're local (i.e., the artifacts in them were found in their area), they're mostly in either French or German. Some have English translations, but since the main attraction is the images, those with no French (me) or German (me almost) can still get quite a lot out of them.
Danish National Museum - where the Gunestrup cauldron lives.
Figurines Gallo-Romaines - In French, but worth looking at even if you can't read it, for the pictues of artifacts. Most are of everyday religious items, the type that would have been found in an average home.
Langensoultzbach Museum - A page from the site of this Alsatian museum which has a fair number of pictures of reliefs of deities, both Celtic and Roman.
Keltenmuseum Hochdorf - A museum for the famous grave of a Celtic "prince." It includes photos of the artifacts, which have explanations in English.
Menschen in Dorf Grinario - Among the artifacts on this site is a nice Epona.
Musée des Archéologie Nationales
British Deities
Cocidius:  Yardhope

Continental Celtic Deities
One of the great things about studying the Continental Celts is that you don't have to learn a Celtic language. Sure, French and German are darn useful, and a touch of Latin never hurt anyone, but the most important evidence is in the artifacts. I'm going to concentrate on the deities here, although there are certain to be other artifacts on the pages I'm recommending. I'll also be including images of Roman deities identified with Celtic ones.
The labels on the links are either the findspots, the museums the artifacts are in, or the website I found them on, in that order of preference.
Apollo:  Bifrost    Trier (Apollo Grannus)
Artio:  Bern
Aveta:  Treveri
Bandua Araugelensis:  Museo de Arqueología de Badajoz (fig. 12)
Danuvius:   Vienna?
Endovellicus:  Miguel da Mota (fig. 10)
Epona:   Epona.net     Frieberg am Neckar     Gannat     Grinario     Langres 1     Langres 2     Metz          Musée des Antiquités nationales 2     Ohringen     Pannonia     Salonica     Trier
Wikipedia Commons - Photos of a number of images.
Eribante:  Northern Vosge
Esus:   Chronarchy.com
Genii Cucullati:nbsp; http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mus%C3%A9e_Picardie_Arch%C3%A9o_03.jpg>Rivery, Picardy
Grannus:  Dijon
Herecura:  Stuttgart
Jupiter Columns:   Arlon     Bonn     Dieburg     Donon (Vosges)     Echzell     Grand (Vosges) 1     Grand (Vosges) 2     Koln 1     Koln 2    Luxemburg     Metz 1     Metz 2     Obernburg 1     Obernburg 2
Magusanus:  Empel
Matres/Matronae:   Bath - (Not from the continent.)     Bibracte     Bonn     Bonn (Aufonian Mothers)     Livius     Lyons     Mumling-Grumbach     Nocelo da Pena (fig. 7)     Various     Zulphich
Mercury:   Bonn (Gebrinius)     Clermont Ferrand
Mother Goddess:   Allier     Argentomagus     Musee National d'Archeology 1     Musee National d'Archeology 2     Remagener Museum      Sarrebourg
Nantosuelta:   Metz     Speyer
Naria:   Muri
Nehellennia:  Colijnsplaat     Domburg 1     Domburg 2     Livius.org     Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden     Various 1, 2, 3, 4
Rosmerta:   Autun     Bath - (Not from the continent)     Champoulet-Loiret     Clermont-Ferrand     Eisenberg     Musee de Saint-Germain-En-Laye     Northern Vosges     Reims     Vosges
Sequana:   Dijon
Sirona:  Malain     Trier
Sucellus:   Amiens     Argomentagus     Metz     Musee National d'Archeology     Prémeaux     Strasbourg     Trier     Vienna
Taranis:   Avignon     Le Chatelet Gourzon Haute Marne     Gerling bei Moos     Gundestrup Cauldron     Landouzy-la-Ville     St. Romain-en-Gal (Rhône)
Teutates:  Reims (I have my doubts about this one.)
Tribans:  Northern Vosges
Tricephalous:   Musée des Antiquité nationales     Naix-aux-Forges
     Paris     Reims     Reims 2     Soissons (Fig. 20)
Vosegus:    Northern Vosges

Classical:
Ancient Greek Music - Reconstructed songs.
Beazley Archive - Great collection of artifacts.
Classics FAQ
Electronic Antiquity - On-line journal.
Epigraphy of Roman Britain
A Garland for Zeus - A beautifully and movingly written "rosary" in honor of Zeus.
Greek Gods and Religion - Artworks from the Met depicting deities, rituals, and mythology.
Greek Sacrificial Ritual - Evidence from texts and depictions.
Hellenion - Greek Reconstructionist site, with some lovely rituals.
Hieros Mysterion - Greek and Roman mystery religions.
Homeric Singing - Information, bibliography, and some sample tunes.
Latin to English dictionary
The Obscure Goddesses Online Directory:Roman - An on-going project (projected to go to 300 pages) to list and describe obscure Roman goddesses.
An Overview of Greek Grammar - Good for an introduction or a quick review.
Pompeiana.org"An online resource for all things Pompeian."
Pythagorean Counsels - Fragments of what Pythagoras required of his followers.
Ann R. Raia, Index of Images
The Rhinoceros Lodge - This site belongs to a Greek Pagan group. There is much here about their rituals, an amazing collection of reviews of books written by real scholars, and some random ramblings that are never boring. (I broke my promise here; there's a musical background on the site.)
Ritual and Ceremony in the Graeco-Roman World A Select Classified Bibliography (1970–1996)
Roman Power and Roman Imperial Sculpture - The most interesting thing here is cup at the bottom of the page that shows the moment of killing in a Roman sacrifice. I'm not aware of any other such representation.
Sannion's Sactuary - Hellenic Paganism and more.
The Stele - Graeco-Roman Paganism.
Terme di Diocleziano Museo Nazionale Romana - Photos of artifacts from the museum.
The Theoi Project - Short descriptions of the Greek deities. Also over 600 pictures of them, many from pottery, a major source of knowledge of Greek religion,
Tracing Roman Roots in Bonn - Contains some wonderful artifacts from what was the Roman frontier.
The Vindolanda Tablets - Roman writing tablets from northern England. These are the sort of things that get thrown away, but were preserved in this case. It's the everyday stuff that's the most important.

Primary Sources:
Festus, Breviarum
Ovid's Fasti - A poem explaining the festivals of the Roman year. He only finished half of it, but what we have is priceless.
Sextus Propertius, The Love Elegies

Germanic:
General:
An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary
Anglo-Saxon Heathenism
Germanic Lexicon Project - Dictionaries and grammars of a number of Germanic languages.
Hrafnar - Norse Reconstructionist kindred.
Jordsvin's Norse Heathen Pages - You gotta love a guy who names his site after the aardvark (a noble beast), even if that wasn't his intent.
Medoburg Kindred - Asatru group.
Northvegr - Amazing site on Germanic religion. The number of primary and secondary texts on it is staggering.
Runes

Primary Sources:
Anglo-Saxon Charms - Some of them in translation.
Danish History, by Saxo Grammaticus - One of the important sources for Germanic mythology.
Gallehus Horn and Runestones
Heimskringla - One of the major sources of information on Norse Paganism, by Snorri Sturluson, who also wrote the Prose Edda.
Ibn Fadlan and the Rusiyyah - Ibn Fadlan was an envoy sent to what is now Russian in the early tenth century by the Caliph al-Muqtadir. His report on the Rus, who were most likely Germanic, provides priceless insight into the customs and religion of Germanic Pagans of that time.
Northvegr - Amazing site on Germanic religion. The number of primary and secondary texts on it is staggering.
Ragnar's Viking Page - Links to sagas and the rune poems.
Runes in Bergen - Preliminary report from the project "Computerising the runic inscriptions at the Historical museum in Bergen"
Wulfila Project - Collection of texts in Gothic and some other early Germanic languages.

Judaism and Christianity:
The Development of the Canon of the New Testament - Also includes non-canonical texts.
Early Christian Writings - Both canonical and non-canonical works, including the writings of the Church Fathers.
Critique of Josh McDowell's "Evidence that Demands a Verdict" - Josh McDowell is a very influential figure in Evangelical apologetics, and "Evidence that Demands a Verdict" is probably his most famous book. This critique shows the book to contain a number of fatal flaws. It should be read not only by non-Christians who may be confronted with this sort of evidence, but by Christians who might be using it and should be aware of just how easily it may be refuted.
Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library
Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls - From the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
The Septuagint Online - Writings on this early Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures.
USC West Semitic Research Project - From the University of Southern California School of Religion, covering the Dead Sea Scrolls, manuscripts of the bible, and other ancient texts.

The Kalasha:
The Kalasha are an Indo-Iranian people living in Pakistan who are neither Indic nor Iranian. (Discuss.) Although under assault by Islam, for centuries, and tourists, in recent years, their culture has survived. They are now the only Pagan Indo-European culture, making a study of them of great importance for Indo-European Pagans.
Georg Morgentstierne - Morgenstierne was a Norwegian scholar who lived 1892 - 1978. Among the things he left behind are recordings of Kalasha music and speech. Even more important, in 1929 he filmed a goat sacrifice. This site has excerpts from that film, along with one made in 1998. These, especially the earlier one, are truly amazing and invaluable sources for those of us interested in Indo-European ritual.
Site Shara: Forum for Chitral and the Kalasha. - An overall view of Kalasha culture.

Mithraism:
Cautes and Cautopates from Palermo.
Eikon: Image Database for Biblical Studies - Mithraic images.
German Tauroctionies and altars - In the museum at the University of Innsbruck.
Mithraeum from Ostia
Mosaic from Ostia 1
Mosaic from Ostia 2
Mosaic from Ostia 3
Mosaic from Ostia 4
Internet Infidels Discussion Forum -- Mithraism thread - Similar to my essays, but also different.
Mithras Liturgy - A fourth century magical text that may (or may not) preserve some Mithraic ritual. There is certainly some Mithraic imagery, but that could have come from outside.
Mithraism - Excellent article by Alison B. Griffith which does a nice job of summarizing the evidence. It's posted on The Ecole Initiative, which "is a cooperative effort on the part of scholars across the internet to establish a hypertext encyclopedia of early Church history (to the Reformation)."
Mithraism in History and Archaeology - Huge site, presenting the important material.
Mithras: literary references - Handy collection of the mentions of Mithras by ancient authors. There's also a photo of a very nice tauroctony, in which you can see that parts of it were originally colored (as were all those beautifully luminous Greek and Roman statues; ancient Rome and Athens were probably quite tacky), with Mithras' face in gold.
Mithras Petragenetrix 1
Mithras Petragenetrix - From Rome.
Le mithraeum de Riegel - A mithraeum, tauroctony, and meal with Sol.
The Mysteries of Mithras, by Franz Cumont -- It should be clear from my Mithraism pages that this book is obsolete. Nonetheless, it's a classic, which gave birth to the field of Mithraic studies, and has some great pictures, so it's worth looking at.
Menschen in Dorf Grinario - Among the artifacts on this site is a tauroctony.
Tauroctony from Nersae
Tauroctony in the Louvre
David Ulansey's Website
Virtual Mithraeum - A painting of what a mithraeum might have looked like. From the Museum of Antiquities in Newcastle upon Tyne.

Tauroctonies
(some are found at the sites above)
British Museusm
Doura Europos
Nersae
Ostia
Palermo
Paris (in the Louvre)
Rome (Museo Epigraphico)
Rome (Vatican Musuem)- I was able to get directions to this from the museum guard, even though I don't speak Italian, and he didn't speak English, by miming the stabbing of the knife.
Rome (Vatican Museum)
Wiesbaden - which is where I went to 5th and 6th grade.

Modern Paganism:
Hyperdiscordia: Confusion for a new Generation - Don't worry, it's not supposed to make sense fnord.
Into the Mound: Druid Occultism and Pagan Sorcery -- Blog of Ian Corrigain, Archdruid Emeritus of ADF, and a darned good liturgist and composer.
Jonobie's Writings - More original ideas on Paganism and culture, along with book reviews and links.
Massachusetts Pagan Pride Project - Not completely filled out, but if you live in Massachusetts you'll want to keep an eye on it.
Pagan Hierarchy - Wondering where you fit in in the Pagan community? Want to know who you should be looking down on and who's looking down on you?
The Pagan Pride Project Website - For those not in Massachusetts.
Reformed Druids of North American. - An unofficial website with the history and holy books of this influential Neo-Pagan religion.
Smiling Panther's Den - Contains the reading list to end all reading lists. Good essays, too.
Welcome to the Witches' Voice (Witchvox.com) - A great resource for contacts with Pagan groups and open ritual announcements.
South Central Druid Coalition - Links to druidic groups in Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, and Louisiana.

Shinto
Shinto is the only widespread Pagan religion of an industrialized country, so it's worthwhile for modern Pagans to look into it. It's not doing too well, though, which is also a reason to check it out, to see what's causing its decline.
Basic Terms of Shinto
Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America - Shinto shrine in Washington state.

Silver Ravenwolf:
Silver Ravenwolf is one of the most popular Wiccan authors today. Unfortunately, her work has some severe problems, not the least of which is that she recommends that children lie to their parents. Here are some websites critical of her:
The Problem with Silver Ravenwolf - An essay from Smiling Panther's Den.
Tarnished Silver: Why I don't recommend Silver Ravenwolf.
Why We Despise Silver Ravenwolf - An essay from the Wicca for the Rest of us site.

Slavic:
Bulgarian - Store for Bulgarian art, music, folklore, jewelry, clothing, and the like.
Polish Art Center - Store for not only Polish art (particularly folk art), but books, including on folklore.
Wulflund -- Old Slavic Slavic jewelry, statues, etc.

Sumerian:
The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature
Sumerian Artifacts
Sumerian Mythology FAQ

Thelema and Ceremonial Magic:
The Equinox - When my wife gave me the ten issues of Volume I for a wedding present in 1981, she had people all up and down the east coast looking for them. She finally got a complete set in a bookstore that had gotten them in as a special order. When the manager learned why she wanted them, he sold them to her. Now the thing's on line. I like her way of getting them instead.
The Lemegeton or Lesser Key of Solomon
Ra-Hoor-Khuit's Magical Library - On-line copies of some of Crowley's works.

Thrace:
The Language of the Thracians

The Tocharians
Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Tocharian (but were afraid to ask) - Assuming you did (and were).

Vedism:
The Bahiṣpavamāna Ritual of the Jaiminīyas
The Nasatya's, the Chariot and Proto-Aryan Religion - Article from the Journal of Indological Studies on the Asvins. It's no surprise that I disagree with his position that the Divine Twins weren't Proto-Indo-European, but there is some very good information and ideas here, particularly regarding the connection between the Asvins and both kingship and the axis mundi.
Der Rig Veda - The Rig Veda translated into German.
Rig Veda - Griffith's translation. It's obsolete, but is still the only complete English translation. Mayve not useful for Vedic scholars, but fine for those wanting a feel for the tradition.
The Rigveda: Metrically Restored Text - This is the RV in transliterated Sanskrit. Those who, like me, don't read Sanskrit, might still find it useful. Sometimes knowing the exact word is in Sanskrit is important. For instance, is a word translated "Law" originally "rta" or "dharman?" It can make a difference.
Veda and Vedic Ritual: Agni, Soma, and Pravargya. - Not only great descriptions of these rituals, but videos of parts of them being performed. How cool is that?
The Vedic Experience - A collection of Vedic texts with commentary, by Raimon Panikkar.
Vedic Houses
Vedic India - By Louis Renoubr> Michael Witzel's Home Page. - Dr. Witzel teaches Indian Studies at Harvard. His site contains a number of his publications, including a book on Vedic religion.

Wicca and Neo-Wicca:
Catalyst Point - Some marvelously original ideas on Paganism.
Covenant of the Goddess - An organization composed of covens and solitaries. Well-respected; they sent a representative to the Second Parliament of World Religions in 1993. A video of part of their presentation was shown on the 700 Club to show those "awful Wiccans." It showed a professional-looking woman in a suit giving a calm and clear presentation on Wicca. Apparently Pat Robertson had no idea that the clip might make people think that Wiccans were actually more respectable than they had thought.
Etruscan Roman Remains in Popular Tradition - One of the works of Charles Godfrey Leland, a source of Wicca.
Gerald Gardner.com - Indispensible for studying the history of Wicca.
Levity's Vestments - Similar to my essay on the origins of the Charge, only concentrating on the bits from Crowley.
Look Back in Controversy: A Samhain Interview with Aidan Kelly.
Society of the Elder Faiths - Massachusetts Pagan Organization.
Wiccan Reader's Starter Kit: Thirten Books every Wiccan Should Read - Of the books I've read, I agree. Especially with A Book of Pagan Prayer.
The Witch Cult in Western Europe, by Margaret Murray - One of the founding documents of Wicca. Murray was a respected Egyptologist who came up with the idea that the people persecuted for witchcraft were actually practicing a secretly surviving Pagan mystery cult. Gardner took here seriously. No one in academia does anymore. Worth reading as an historical document, and as a way to see what in Wicca has its source in her.

Zoroastrianism (and other Iranian)
Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions
Ashoi - Recordings of manthras.
Avesta - Zoroastrian Archives - As far as I can tell, a collection of files of all the Zoroastrian scriptures.
No Ruz - The Iranian New Year.
The Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees - by Jivanji Jamshedi Modi. A long book describing the Zoroastrian rituals. It's on the Avesta site, but deserves its own link.
The Role of Fire in Parsi Ritual - Journal article.
Scythian Art - Slides from the collection of John Haskins at the University of Pittsburgh. Beautiful.
Zoroastrian Worship

Crap Detectors
It's a sad truth that when you hang around with the sort of people I do, you get exposed to a lot of hooey. After a while you decide it's not worth the trouble getting upset about things, and you learn to smile and nod. I was getting used to that, and then Reiki came along to add one more thing to the list.
AntiPolygraph.org - This particular crap detector is the real crap. How come I learned that lie detectors were bogus in my psych classes back in the 70s, but the government is still using them?
Bad Astronomy - I don't agree with all his opinions of movies, but the science is excellent.
Bad Science - Science isn't always taught particularly well.
Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. - They'd probably hate most of this site, but I'm glad they're out there doing their job.
The Crackpot Index - "A simple method for rating potentially revolutionary contributions to physics."
Don Lindsay Archive - Essays by a computer scientist on a variety of subjects, primarily fringe "science." There is a good one on fallacious arguments. He takes on creationism as well.
Handbook of Logical Fallacies - The basic rules.
How to Talk to a Climate Sceptic - Not exactly a crap detector; more what to do when confronted with someone who believes crap.
In the Hall of Ma'at - Weighing the evidence for alternative history.
Investigator's Guide to Allegations of "Ritual" Child Abuse - A report from an FBI agent on just how crazy the rumors of ritual sacrifices are.
Elizabeth Loftus - The website of the premier researcher into how memories are created and recalled. Great writer as well as researcher.
Memory and Reality - Website of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. Memory is a tricky thing. The worst thing about it is that it's not just the bringing to mind that's unreliable, it's the storing. People's lives have been ruined over this stuff.
Moon Base Cluvius - Yes, we did in fact land on the moon. Now go eat your paste quietly.
The Museum of Hoaxes - It's nice to see people who have fun with their work.
James Randi - The premier skeptic.
The Seven Warning Signs of Bogus Science
Urban Legends Reference Pages - One of my favorite sites. If you hear anything that sounds too good to be true, look it up here. Or you can just go to it from time to time and browse; that's what I do.
Why Astrology is a Pseudoscience

Evolution
It's sad that evolution still has to be defended, but there are still those who think that religion should be taught in science class, and that the scientific method shouldn't apply to questions of the origins of species.
Analysis of Kent Hovind - Not sure it's really fair -- fish in a barrel, and all.
Anti-Evolution: The Critic's Response
Becoming Human
Bio-web: Evolution - Evidence and Theory
Creation/Evolution: Eternal Debate
Creationism’s Fallacy of Retrospective Astonishment
The Creation of an Evolutionist - The blog of Mike Beidler, a Christian who accepts evolution.
Defender's Guide to Science and Creationism - A list of arguments used by Creationists, and responses to them by scientists.
Evolution Education Resource Center - The coverage of flood geology is particularly good.
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics! - With the 2nd Law being used so often by Creationists, even thought their arguments using it were refuted decades ago, it's good to have a clear explanation of what the law actually says. Fascinating stuff; I was blown away to learn that complex molecules aren't only allowed by the law, but even predicted. (Complex molecules contain less energy than the atoms which from which they were formed. Think Hindenburg.)
Evolution: Frequently Asked Questions - A nice treatment of the basics from PBS.
Kenneth R. Miller Home Page - Dr. Miller teaches biology at Brown University; there are a number of excellent articles on evolution here.
Know Your Creationists: Kent Hovind - Kent Hovind is currently in jail for a very long time for tax evasion. And to think that I didn't get to hear him speak when he was at a church about a mile from my house!
Laetoli Footprints - 3.6 million year old footprint of hominids walking erect.
Lucy - Questions and answers on the most famous fossil, with a great picture of her.
Malevolent Design - Makes sense to me.
The Many Faces of Anti-Evolution
No Answers in Genesis
National Center for Science Education - Defending the Teaching of Evolution in the Public Schools. Check out their Project Steve.
The Panda's Thumb - Discussion group. Named after one of the best anti-creationist arguments, the panda's "thumb," which is actually a jury-rigged wrist bone. Makes a Creator who made things just the way they are seem not very competent.
A Reducibly Complex Mousetrap - Michael Behe, the apostle of Intelligent Design, likes to use a mousetrap as an analogy of an irreducibly complex system, one in which the loss of any one part means the system loses the ability to function. Let's put aside the fact that since mousetraps don't reproduce and aren't subject to natural selection, the analogy is irrelevant, and just read John H. MacDonald's account of how a mousetrap could after all "evolve," piece by piece.
Science and Creationism - The National Academy of Science's take on the subject.
The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program - Helping to understand the origins of mankind and getting what they've learned out to the public.
Stupid Dino Tricks: A Visit to Kent Hovind’s Dinosaur Adventure Land - An article from the website of CSICOP on the most ridiculous of the Creationism hawkers.
Talk.Origins Archive - A collection of essays on the debate between Creationism and evolution. Absolutely fascinating, and a good teaching tool.
Their Own Version of the Big Bang - The theory seems to be that if you get hold of them early enough, and throw enough lies at them ...
Things Creationists Hate - You know, when they're all listed one after another like this, I understand Creationists even less.
Understanding Evolution
Warning: Gravity is only a theory. - Personally, I'm shocked to learn this. It's time to stop teaching the religion of gravitism in schools.

Flags and Heraldry:
One of my lesser-known geek interests.
Australian Proposed Flags - See why some people should be allowed to design flags (Ralph Kelly; the one with the kangaroo) and some people should not (Antonio Martins).
The College of Arms - Center of British heraldry.
Flags of the World
Heraldry Clip Art - Clip art of heraldic elements. Good not just for heraldic art; you never know when you might need clip art of a griffin.
Institute of Heraldry - US Army heraldry.
Mooney's Flag Detective - Look up flags by appearance, rather than country.

History:
Books banned in Nazi Germany - We're not quite there yet. However, when the time comes, I'm sure these will be on the Neo-Conservatives' lists as well:
Writings of a philosophical and social nature whose content deals with the false scientific enlightenment of primitive Darwinism and Monism.
All writings that ridicule, belittle or besmirch the Christian religion and its institution, faith in God, or other things that are holy to the healthy sentiments of the Volk.
Medieval Technology Pages - We tend to think of the Middle Ages as a time of low tech. Good to know they weren't.
Monastic Matrix - "A scholarly resource for the study of women's religious communities from 400 to 1600 CE."
NetSERF - Many links to Medieval Studies sites.
Roman Emperors - So many emperors, so little time.
They Thought They Were Free - Excerpt from a book about how pre-War Germans got used to living under the Nazis. See how much of this sounds familiar.
Traditions of Magic in Late Antiquity - Great collection of gems and amulets.

Indo-European (language and culture):
Areal and Typological Affinities of Proto-Indo-European/ pdf by Ranko Matasovic
The Ash Tree in Indo-European Culture - Article by Darl Dumont. Pretty cool; did you know you can actually make mead from ash sap?
The Early History of the Indo-European languages. - (Click on the left-most book.) Article from Scientific American by Gamkrelidze and Ivanov; their theories about the Indo-European homeland and Proto-Indo-European phonology are controversial, but they are well respected.
The Ergative State of Early Proto-Indo-European - Shortened version of Hans-Joachim Alscher's thesis.
Family Tree of Indo-European Languages
Harmony in Greek and Indo-Iranian Cosmology - A prefinal version of a paper by John Curtis Franklin which appeared in the Journal of Indo-European Studies 30:1 and 2 (2002), pp. 1 - 25. He expresses beautifully concepts relating to that of the Artus. (For "Artus," see my pages on Proto-Indo-European religion.)
Indo-European Dispersals and the Eurasian Steppe - Youtube video of a lecture by J. P. Mallory on the origin and spread of Indo-European.
The Indo-European Family -- The Linguistic Evidence - Good overview of Indo-European linguistics, by Brian D. Joseph of Ohio State.
Indo-European Phonology - As well as the subject topic, this site contains a large number of Proto-Indo-European words, with their proper endings.
Indo-European Home Page - Links.
Indo-European Resources - Links to sites on Indo-European languages and culture.
Kurgan Culture - The "Kurgan Theory" of Gimbutas' (one of her ideas before she went off the deep Goddess end) is probably the leading one regarding the homeland of the Indo-Europeans. This site isn't just about the Kurgans, though; it has some information on the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
"Let us now praise famous grains." - Article by Calvert Watkins that's required reading for anyone interested in Indo-European sacred drinks.
On the creation of domestic animals in Proto-Indo European mythology - Very basic, but useful as an introduction.
An Overview of the Proto-Indo-European Verb System
Pokorny - Pokorny's Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, the granddaddy of dictionaries of Indo-European etymology. Out of date, but there's really nothing to take its place. In German, but easy to use with a dictionary.
Proto-Indo-European - Very short (about a page) introduction to the subject.
Proto-Indo-European Syntax - Classic book by Winfred Lehmann.

Language:
American English Dialect Map
Ape-English Dictionary - Admittedly, you won't be able to write a novel with this. But it might come in handy in Ape Bars.
Ardalambion - Everything you always wanted to know about the languages of Tolkien.
The Awful German Language - Mark Twain's essay on German.
Ancient Scripts - One of my dorky interests; gives examples of more ways of writing than I knew existed.
The Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest - "It was a dark and stormy night ... "
The Chaos: A Versified Catalog of 800 English Spelling Irregularities
Cliche Generator - If they had been recorded in some primitive tribe, or included in an ancient text, we would say that they were records of a shared culture.
Circolwyrde Wordhord - Computer Terminology for speakers of Old English. This probably should have gone under "Too much time on their hands."
Dialectizer - A good supplement to Babel Fish.
Diner Lingo Dictionary - OK, we've all heard of "Adam and Eve on a raft," but I was greatly disappointed to learn that the diner lingo term for a BLT is "BLT."
Electronic Introduction to Old English
Elfling - Excellent site on Tolkien's languages.
Endangered Language Project - Descriptions of endangered languages, and, even better, sometimes there are recordings.
Engrish - In Japan English is kind of cool, but those who put it on things such as t-shirts don't necessarily know what they're saying. Let this serve as a warning to those getting tattoos of Chinese words. Do you really know what message you are permanently putting on your body?
A Glossary of Linguistic Terms - For a field which studies language, linguistics has an almost impenetrable jargon.
Another Glossary of Linguistic Terms
How to Say "Rabbit" - in different languages.
Insultmonger - How to swear in 164 languages.
Interactive Sagittal Section - You can adjust the shape and such of a cutaway side view of a mouth, to show what is meant by descriptions such as "bilabial stop."
International Phonetic Association - The keepers of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
International Phonetic Alphabet Pronunciation - Click on the symbol and hear the pronunciation.
Jennifer's Language Page - How to say common phrases such as "hello" and "thank you" in many different languages, plus some very useful links to other linguistics sites.
LangMaker.com - Constructed languages central, with a huge number of links.
The Language Construction Kit - Truly marvelous advice on inventing your own language.
Language Museum - Sample texts in 2000 languages.
Learn to say "squirrel" in over 100 different languages. - They left out the Proto-Indo-European *werwer-.
Linguistik-Links - A large number of links to linguistic sites, almost all Indo-European. This site's in German, but most of the links aren't.
Lingua Franca - "Lingua Franca" is commonly used to mean a common language of some sort, whether a pidgin or a complete language which has been adopted by speakers of different languages. For instance, English is quickly becoming the lingua franca of many parts of the world, especially Europe. The term originally denoted a particular one of these, a pidgin developed in the eastern Mediterranean as early at least as early as the 14th century, and probably much earlier, from Romance languages and Arabic. It survived into the 20th century.
The Makers- A poetic tribute to the originators of language and poetry.
"My name is ... in over 275 languages.
Net Lingo - A dictionary of internet terms.
Oh, my god, there's an axe through my head! - In 102 languages.
The Organization of Dialect Diversity in North America - The good news for my daughter is that the failure to distinguish between "cot" and "caught" is fairly widespread. The bad news for civilization is that the failure to distinguish between "pen" and "pin" is spreading.
The Origins of Old English Morphology
Phaistos Disk Update - An enigmatic artifact consisting of a clay disk with imprinted characters. A prayer? A curse? A calendar? Proof of a mathematical theorem? "Another one of the 'Games of Thoth' created to bring awareness about the nature of reality"? In Greek? In Minoan? In Arbanetic? One of the great puzzles, and highly unlikely to ever be solved.
Phrontistery - About words, including some marvelous material on "lost words."
Pseudodictionary - Madeup words.
San Diego Linguistics Papers
sci.lang FAQ - Questions and answers on linguistics. Where to go to find out just how many words the Eskimos have for "snow."
Sentence First - Etymology blog.
Slang Terms Connected with Drugs
The Slot - By a copy writer for copy writers and language mavens. I can't say that I agree with everything he says (I can't go along with his problem about calling Bush simply "Governor" instead of "Governor of Texas"), but most of it is an argument for common sense in the face of language Nazis.
Take Our Word for It - Fun etymology site.
Unsuck it - Translating jargon into real language.
Word2Word Language Resources - Links to forums, translators, language courses, etc. It's hard to tell how good these courses are without using them, but it's good to see them all in one place.
World Atlas of Linguistic Structure
Your Dictionary.com: Grammars and Language Courses - Links to on- and off-line resources for learning particular languages.

Linguists' Web Pages:
Many linguists have webpages, usually on their institutions' sites. The great thing about them is that they frequently contain papers (sometimes even books), either published or not. There's some truly amazing stuff. There can also be humor pages, interesting links, or odd things like a live feed from outside their office window. Some of the material may be not in English, but even on a German linguist's website there are usually at some papers in English. Many of these papers are out of my depth, but you might enjoy them.
Emmon Bach
Balthasar Bickel
Peter J. Binkert
Paul Boersma
Andrew Carnie
Paul Hagstrom
Martin Haspelmath
Brian D. Joseph
Brett Kessler - He's in the psychology department at Washington University in St. Louis, but he works in linguistics. Most of the papers on his site are about spelling, especially in English, and he does a nice job of showing that English spelling isn't as messy as many make it out to be (and that Shaw's spelling of "fish" as "ghoti" is all wet).
Frederik Kortlandt
Wouter Kuster
John M. Lawler
Bruce MacLennan - Mostly on cognitive science from a computer point of view, but a few articles on linguistics.
Nick Nicholas
Stephen Pinker
Beatrice Santorini - Amazing humor pages (plus serious stuff).
Ralf Vollman

Religion:
Monastic Mumblings: A Friar's Journey - A Christian site with essays on religion, politics, and culture. His writings are thought-provoking, and I recommend the site to anyone of any religion.
Psyche's Links - Over 5000 links to religion sites, mostly Christian and Jewish. I make no promises of the accuracy or even the sanity of the links.
Top 10 Atheist Myths - I'm a polytheist, of course, but I have a lot of sympathy for anyone whose religious beliefs aren't mainstream. (And yes, atheism is a religious belief. Deal with it.) Too many atheist statements just sound angry, though. This one doesn't, at least not much.
Virtual Religion Index - Links to links on religions, ancient and modern.

Science and Math (Miscellaneous):
The Beetles - The world's most successful family.
Estimating the Time of Death - Completely useless to me, and all the more interesting because of that.
Inside David's Head - My name is David. This is not my head.
The Official String Theory Web Site - I'm still not sure I understand it, since I don't have the math, but it's a little clearer.
The On-line Dictionary of Integer Sequences - Truly, truly geeky. Type in a sequence of integers and find out if it's significant somewhere. Absurd -- aren't *all* integer sequences significant, each beautiful in its own right? How to choose, how to choose.
Paleogeography and Geologic Evolution of North America - What did North America look like in different geologic periods? Cool maps.

Online Journals:
At the Edge Home Page - An online folklore journal.
The Bryn Mawr Classical Review - Reviews of books on ancient Greece and Rome.
The Heroic Age - An online journal covering northwest Europe in the early medieval period.
Histos - Classics journal.
Internet Archaeology - Online archaeology journal.
Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford Journal of Religion and Society
Meatnews.com - What it says.
Speculative Grammarian Online - "The premier scholarly journal featuring research in the neglected field of satirical linguistics." Looking for an article entitled "How Many is Umpteen?" Feeling a need for a Proto-Indo-European roots crossword puzzle? Then this is the journal for you.
TOCS-IN - Not actually a journal, but an index to 185 journals on the classics, the Ancient Near East, and religion. Incredibly useful; before you can find something, you have to know what there is to look for.
Versification - An Electronic Journal of Literary Prosody

Miscellaneous Primary Sources:
Ancient Near Eastern Sources - Texts from Egypt, Babylon, Palestine, etc.
Diotoma - Texts from Rome, Greece, and Egypt relevant to women in those cultures.
Folklore and Mythology: Electronic Texts
Internet Ancient History Sourcebook - Texts from Greece, Rome, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Some secondary material of uneven quality.
Perseus Digital Library - Mainly Greek and Roman texts.
The Robin Hood Project - Extensive collection of ballads and other sources of the Robin Hood legend.

Sources For Hard To Find Books:
AddALL
Alibris.com
Allbookstores.com
BookFinder.com
Books for Scholars
Locating Books - A list of links to places to get out-of-print books.
South Asia Books
Dissertation Express - You can order copies of doctoral dissertations here.

Aardvarks
Aardvarks are beasts with very long noses.
Aardvarks are beasts with very long toeses.
They uses their toeses for ripping up mounds
Where termites do live on African grounds.
Aangelina Aardvark - How long must we wait for there to be a Beanie Baby version of this noble beast? Perhaps we should all e-mail Ty the link to this site.
"Aardvark" means "earth pig." - Aardvark's are not "timid animals." This noble beast is simply above the fray. He will fight fiercely when attacked, however; never mistake nobility for cowardice.
Aardvark: Order Tubilidentata - Solitary, silent philosphers, wandering like Diogenes from burrow to burrow, are these noble beasts. Plus "difficult animals to catch."
Dr. Sheep and the Aardvark - Of the two, it is clearly the aardvark that is the noble beast. (It's funnier if you imagine the aardvark with a Scottish accent.)
Great Uncle Aardvark? - One of the ways in which these noble beasts are special is that they have their own order. Now here's another: genetically they appear to be very close to the first mammals.
Orycteropus afer (On Animal Diversity Web) - General information on this noble beast.
Orycteropus afer (On the Ultimate Ungulate Page) - Noble and cute.
Rochester Aardvarks Rugby Club - The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton. May this noble beast inspire us all to attain nobility through fair competition.

Beatles
The world's most successful musical group.
Across the Universe
The Beatles Discography -
The Beatles Ultimate Experience - Their interviews, arranged by both event and topic.
Alan W. Pallock - Analyses of Beatles' recordings by a musicologist. Find out why they were so great.
Paul is Dead - OK, so maybe he is.
What goes on: Beatles Anomalies List - Odd things that go on in Beatles songs, many of them artifacts of the recording process.
While My Guitar Gently Weeps - "While my guitar gently weeps" played on a ukulele like it was a classical guitar. You have to listen to this, whether you're a Beatles fan or not. Heavenly.

Games
Asteroids Revenge 3 - Asteroids from their point of view.
Crossword Puzzle - Not quite the New York Times.
Flags: Guess the Nation - They show you the flag, you guess the nation. Hey, some of us think this is fun!
Free Educational Games
Free Rice - Define words, and these people donate rice to poor people.
Hangnun - Hangman, sort of.
The Official Rock Papers Scissors Strategy Guide - And you thought the game was simple.
Orisinal - A few dozen original games, some seriously chickish (collecting flowers on the string connecting a bottle of champagne and a rising balloon? Please.) But some non-chick ones as well. I.e., you get to blow things up.
Penguinball - No penguins were harmed in the making of this program.
Perpetual Bubblewrap - The only one who loses here is you, when you realize how much time you've wasted.
Smalltime Industries - Among the links here is "Guess the Dictator/Sitcom Character."

Movies and TV
Golden Rasberries - Worst Film? Worst Actor? The awards show for the rest of us.
Mayberry in Star Trek - Simply amazing.
Metacritic - Reviews from many sources of movies, music, games, and dvds.
Movie-a-Minute - Summaries of movies for when you don't have two minutes.
Movie Names That Sound Like You are Taking a Poop
Pajiba! - "Scathing reviews for bitchy people."
Top 10 Things I Hate About Star Trek - Dead on.

Too much time on their hands:
Blurry Dots - Seriously too much time on their hands.
Cheeze Doodle Sculpture - With most of these it's the site itself that qualifies for the category of "Too Much Time on Their Hands." In this case, though, it's what the topic of the site is.
Peep Research - Filling a gap in our knowledge of the world. Notice the presence of some actual scientific and medical equipment. Check out the "Illuminated Site of the Week" button; some truly bizarre links there.
Pi-Search - Put in a sequence of numbers and see where in pi it's found. Compete with your friends to see whose birthday comes first! Fight it out by randomly picking numbers! Win no valuable prizes!
Momo - Momotaro Hirata's website. He's a hamster.
Table of Condiments - How long should something be in the back of your refrigerator?
The Twinkies Project - Scientific journals don't publish the stuff we really want to know.
Viking Kittens - Has to be seen and heard to be appreciated.
University of Bums on Seats - Lower education.

Things Unclassified (and in some cases unclassifiable):
All About Campfires and Fire Starting - When I told my wife about this site, she said, "I'm so glad we have a girl."
AOL Secret Dirty Words List - AOL won't let you use certain words on their bulletin boards. Which ones? They're not sayin'.
Awesome People Hanging Out Together - Pictures of famous people together. Some are a bit of a surprise.
Baby's Named a Bad, Bad Thing: A primer on Parent Cruelty - Why is it that parents seem to think that giving a child a "unique" name will make them more special? If I were the kid, I would find it insulting; what, I can't be special by myself, only if you gave me the right name? And how does spelling a name oddly, dooming a child to a lifetime of having their name misspelled, help them become "unique?" By giving them something all their own to be pissed off at? The example I love/hate the most is "Rhyannon." I'm guessing that the letter "y" was put there to make the name look more Celtic. This of course ignores the fact that since the name is Welsh, it's already Celtic. Some people shouldn't reproduce.
Basho's Frog Haiku - In Japanese, and then 30 translations.
BookCrossing - A wonderful project - register a book, print out a label for it, put the label in it, and leave the book somewhere for people to read and pass on. If they post to the site, you can follow your book as it travels. Two copies of A Book of Pagan Prayer registered, one in England and in North Carolina.
Bored.com - Almost makes this section of the links unnecessary.
The Cave of Chauvet-Pont-D'arc - Beautifully designed site about one of the cave systems in France with ancient paintings and carvings. The artistry of the pictures is stunning. Highly recommended.
CIA website. - Such delicious irony; the CIA with a website. Maybe this should be classified rather than unclassified.
The Cowsills Official Web Page - The world's most successful family musical group.
Crank Net - I am in awe of this site. It's a collection of links to odd groups -- UFO cultists, creationists, holocaust deniers, etc. -- with rating such as "cranky" and "crankier." Lots of fun, and a little bit scary.
They don't get Discordianism, though.
Crossovers and Spin-offs - Characters from one show often show up on other ones. For instance, Ursula from Mad About You is the twin of Phoebe from Friends, and Alan Brady from The Dick Van Dyke Show appeared on Mad About You. This means that all three shows exist in the same universe. It turns out that this is an extremely common thing, and that more shows are connected than you might think. This site links then all.
Dead People Server - We know that Paul isn't dead. Who is?
Dolmens in the Netherlands - I never knew there were so many in so small a country. Pictures of all 54 of them.
eNature - Put in your zipcode and find out the animals in your area.
Everything You Need to Know About Writing Successfully - in Ten Minutes, by Stephen King - King is a brilliant writer, and his advice here is excellent. I especially like his first rule . He's just cynical enough to be a pro.
Favorite Prescriptions in 2003
Onomastics - The studies of names, including placenames.
57 Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena - Seriously cool.
Forgotten Bookmarks - A used bookseller posts things he's found in books he's bought. Charming.
Free-Range Kids - I've been ranting about this stuff for years. Especially that freaking out about excessive cleanliness may be the cause of the rise in allergies. People. let your kids have lives.
Geek Test - Are you a geek? I sort of am, but without the computer talent.
Geograph British Isles - Their goal is to post a photograph of each square mile of Great Britain.
Giant Salamanders - First of all, those suckers are big. Second, the site takes a while to load, but it's worth it not just for the pictures but also for the awkward English. One tab is "Reading Extensively."
How to Remove an Artifical Eye - Now you know.
How to Sex Your Rabbits - Because sometimes you need to know.
I love you kitten - I promissed my wife I'd put this link on my site.
Implosion World - Explosions are pretty cool, but implosions are not only cool, but artistic.
The Importance of Password Security - Tips on creating strong passwords.
The Institute of Official Cheer - Bringing us yesterday's pop culture today for a better tomorrow. With celery.
International Carnivorous Plant Society - I had no idea there were that many species.
Kinderlieder - German children's songs. But then if you could read the site, you would be able to figure that out. I found this site because when I spent 5th grade in Germany I learned a song that I could only remember some of. This site had it. Yee haw.
Medical Slang - For when you don't want the patients to know you're talking about them. The site is British, so I don't know how much of this applies to the US.
The Megalith Map - Find any stone circle or row in the British Isles.
Mondegreens: A Short Guide - A Mondegreen is a misheard lyric (or sometimes other things, such as advertising slogans), preferably humorous. The most famous is, of course, "'Scuse me while I kiss this guy," but there are fortunately many others to giggle about.
Mortality by Country
Nature's Harmonic Simultaneous 4-Day Time Cube -- Just one word -- huh?
The Obscure Goddesses Online Directory - On-going project to list and describe the obscure goddesses of the Egyptians, Etruscans, Phoenecians, and Romans.
Optical Illusions
Pale Blue Orb - Earth from Saturn.
Peter Noone: The Artist Formerly Known as Herman - I'm not sure he's as deserving of a website as the Cowsills, though.
Pillar Stones, Ogam Stones, and Cross-Pillars of Ireland.
Postsecret - Moving. What do people keep secret from each other? What do you?
Prophecy News Alert - You'll be reassured to know that they'll be "updating this site daily until the end."
Psyche's Links - Over 5000 links to religion sites, mostly Christian and Jewish. I make no promises of the accuracy or even the sanity of the links.
Pyracantha Studios - The page of Hannah Shapero, a wonderful artist. Her site also includes very good essays on Zoroastrianism and links on Western Esotericism.
Recycled Movie Costumes - Not all costumes are made especially for a particularly movie, especially when they are period. This site has photos of actors and actresses wearing the same costume (often with slight changes) in different movies.
Slipups - For when you're depressed and want to look at someone else's mistake.
Stone Pages- Stonehenge, stone circles, dolmens, ancient standing stones, cairns, barrows, hillforts and archaeology of megalithic Europe.
Sun and Moon Data - From the US Naval Observatory. Compute sunrise, moonrise, transits, and such.
TEAMS Middle English Texts
This is Sand - Make your own virtual sand art.
Tropes - "Storytelling devices and conventions," with examples from TV, movies, literature, video games, etc.
Unusual Aviation Pictures
Venom Doc -- Dr. Brian Grieg Fry is an expert on all things venomous. Cool stuff.
Worldwide Wombat Website - Monty Python was right; there are people who care about how many wombats were injured.

Things Humorous, Not Always Intentionally So:
All You Need Is Love - This lucky woman was married to John Lennon. In the 17th century.
Awkward Family Photos
Cat Enema - You really don't want to do this.
Create Farts - For those disappointed with the intellectual level of the other links.
The CommieTubbies Information Center - I always knew they were evil.
Despair, Inc. - Homeof the demotivational poster.
Dihydrogen Monoxide Research Division - Raising our consciousness of the dangers of Dihydrogen Monoxide.
Elephanticity - Contains, among other things, proof that there is not such thing as electricity; that what's really happening is tiny elephants travelling around in wires.
The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman - God has shown him how to solve our energy problems.
Estimating the Airspeed of a Fully Laden Swallow - Really.
A Fine Madness - Is it possible to be creative and still lead a normal life? Yes, if you have a wife to bring you back down from time to time. But in between -- glorious madness!
Food Fight - "an abridged history of American-centric war, from World War II to present day, told through the foods of the countries in conflict."
Gallery of "Misused" Quotation Marks - Very "interesting" and "funny" "site."
The Gettysburg Powerpoint Presentation.
Guide to Government Signs - The government's looking out for you. Really.
The Illuminati - Now I have to kill you.
I used to believe - Kids don't always say the darndest things. Sometimes they think the most absurd.
Landover Baptist Church - Extraordinary parody site.
Mad Magazine's "The Bunion" - A parody of a parody.
Mark Twain Quotations - Mark Twain may be America's greatest philospher, of the type that ancient philosophers use to be, when they were interested in answering the question, "How should I live?" And funny to boot.
Museum of Bad Art - "Dedicated to the collection, preservation, exhibition and celebration of bad art in all its forms and in all its glory."
My Cat Hates You - Nice alternative to cute kitten sites.
A New Approach to Rodent Performance Evaluation - Or, squirrel fishing.
Nipple Addition Surgery - "Fat is only ugly until you put a nipple on it!"
The non-moving Earth and anti-evolution web page of The Fair Education Foundation, Inc.
Origami Boulder Company - You buy wadded up paper now!!!
The Picture of Everything - Artists, you can relax now. (Although I don't think there are any pictures of sculptures made out of cheese doodles.)
Prohibitions Competition - How many things can't you do where?
Rapture Ready - The sky is falling! Or wait, should that be "the Christians are rising?"
Save the Endangered Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus - What a beautiful creature! It would be such a tragedy for it to become extinct. Please do all you can.
Scott Pakin's automatic complaint-letter generator - For the times when you're ticked off enough to want to write a complaint letter, but not enough to want to go through the effort.
Stairway to Heaven - by a Beatles tribute band. Dead on.
Stop Alien Abductions - A public service. I am particularly grateful for his thoroughness of listing sources for the materials.
Stuff on my Cat - Just the right amount of insanity.
The Traffic Cone Preservation Society - Won't you please help?
The Whole World Toilet Paper Museum and Society - Finally some serious contributions to the study of history. The World's Worst Website - Accurately named.
XKCD - Cartoons, based in part on geek subjects, but also on an insightful and often moving view. Very funny.
Zen Stories to Tell Your Neighbors.